来週の授業までに解かなくちゃいけなくて焦っています!どうかおしえてください!!
(1)Discuss the influence of the Romans on Celtic life.

(2)After the Romans left what dangers did the Celts in Britain face?

(3)Who were the West Germanic invaders and where did they come from?

(4)How did the Anglo-Saxon invasion differ from the Roman invasion 400 years before? What happened to the Celts in each case?

(5)How was Anglo-Saxon political life ordered? How many kingdoms did they from? Which was the most powerful?

以上です!どれかいっこでも分かる方、ぜひ教えてください・・!!よろしくおねがいします。

A 回答 (3件)

Nice to meet you, pirominko-san. This is Konkichi. I do not know if you need this info in English or not, but I am sure it will be useful sometime in the future.





>(1)Discuss the influence of the Romans on Celtic life.

The Japanese, when forced to acknowledge foreign influence, learned all they could from that influence and adapted what they had learned to their own lifestyle. The Celts had neither this policy nor this capacity. They had about as much chance of learning from the Romans, though.

The Romans were fought against at various times by the Celts. The Romans never made it deep into Wales or past Northumbria in NOrthern England. This was the domain of homus indomitus-the men who cannot be ruled. Those who could be ruled retained their tribal and clan structures, and the aristocracy, if it might be called that, hob-nobbed with the Romans in their villas...but never learned the secrets of how to build the villas or heat them with piped water. Come to think of it, the Japanese have never worked out central heating either!

So, when the Romans left, the Celts didn't have much in the way of learning. What they had picked up, much against their will, was Christianity, and this is probably the most important influence of the Romans. Almost as advanced
and important were the Roman roads-as bizarre to the Celts as a Shinkansen to a late Tokugawa. The smarter Celtic war chiefs and imperators (military power mongers) learned to use these roads to stay the advances of the Germanic invaders.



>(2)After the Romans left what dangers did the Celts in Britain face?

The Germanic invaders. Oh, and every bad thing about life without proper sanitation and sewerage. They couldn't make underground sewers. Then again, open sewers aren't exactly uncommon in Japan!



>(3)Who were the West Germanic invaders and where did they come from?

West Germanic invaders were a mixed bunch of the following . Most came from Jutland and southern Denmark: the Angles (whose name is the source of the words England and English), Saxons, and Jutes, began to settle in the British Isles in the fifth and sixth centuries AD. They spoke a mutually intelligible language, similar to modern Frisian - the language of the northeastern region of the Netherlands - that is called Old English. Four major dialects of Old English emerged, Northumbrian in the north of England, Mercian in the Midlands, West Saxon in the south and west, and Kentish in the Southeast.

These invaders pushed the original, Celtic-speaking inhabitants out of what is now England into Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, and Ireland, leaving behind a few Celtic words. These Celtic languages survive today in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland and in Welsh. Cornish, unfortunately, is, in linguistic terms, now a dead language. Also influencing English at this time were the Vikings.

In addition to the above groups we have the Norsemen, better known as the Vikings. Norse invasions and settlement, beginning around 850, brought many North Germanic words into the language, particularly in the north of England. Some examples are dream, which had meant 'joy' until the Vikings imparted its current meaning on it from the Scandinavian cognate word, and skirt, which continues to live alongside its native English cognate shirt.



>(4)How did the Anglo-Saxon invasion differ from the Roman invasion 400 years before? What happened to the Celts in each case?

This is not a simple question!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Basically, the Romans are one group, whereas the Anglo-Saxons were more sporadic, and not as advanced as the Romans. In both cases, the Celts were pushed out into Cornwall, Wales and Scotland.



>(5)How was Anglo-Saxon political life ordered? How many kingdoms did they from? Which was the most powerful?

It was feudal with King at the top, plebs at the bottom. Various kingdoms vied for power but by the 800s and 900s they have one king based in Londinium (London) who is above the local kings, known as thanes (a bit like daimyo). There was little war between thanedoms. Most efforts were put into repelling the Vikings and limiting them to their settlements in the Northeast. Furthermore, much about this time is not known because coz people didn't write much down. This is why it's calling the Dark Ages.


Is this OK? Well, I've got to go. See you, Konkichi
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この回答へのお礼

本当にありがとうございました!!!すごい助かりましたよ~(>_<)ほんとにありがたく使わしてもらいます!  
I appreciation for your messages! piromoinko

お礼日時:2003/07/27 22:51

英語史とはあまり関係ないように思いますが・・・。

英語史の基礎となる英国史の話みたいですね。

(1)
ケルト人の生活としてはローマの先進土木建築技術を輸入したこと。また、コロナートゥス化というのが、問題の意図かもしれません。

英語史的には、ブリタニアはAD43にローマの将軍クローディアスの侵攻を受け、以後約400年間ローマの支配に服することになります。これによりラテン語は支配階級の公用語となり、軍事、政治、教育、法律、建築などの分野でラテン語の影響を強く受けることになりました。

(2)
西ローマ帝国が衰えるに従い、逆にゲルマン民族の各部族は活発化し、ゲルマン民族の大移動が始まります。AD410にローマ人が本国に去ると、ブリタニアはゲルマン民族の激しい侵攻に晒されます(次の項で挙げる各部族)。ブリトン人を初めとするケルト民族は、あるいは征服されあるいはウェールズ、スコットランドへと駆逐されてゆきました。

(3)
アングル族 エルベ川河口付近。(ユトランド半島、エルベ川河口付近、ネーデルランドでちょうど角{angle}を作っているからという説がある)。なお、Englandとはアングル族の土地の意。つまりゲルマン大移動時にブリタニアを征服した主要民族です。

サクソン族 ドイツのザクセン地方(英名サクソニア)

ジュート族 デンマークのユトランド半島。ユトランド{jutland}とはジュートの地の意。

(4)
一番大きな違いは、ゲルマンの征服時には、ケルトとゲルマンの同化が進んだことです。

(5)
ブリタニアを征服したゲルマン人は各地に小王国を建設していきました。これらの小王国は6世紀末までに7つに統合されます(へプターキー)。

最も強大だったのはウェセックス{Wesex、現英国Wesex州、West Saxonの意}。特にエグベルト{Egbert、伝775~839}の時にはへプターキーを統一しました。またエグベルトの孫にあたるアルフレッド大王は最盛を極めました。



以上の英国史は、英語史上、最大のインパクトを持つノルマンコンクェスト(1066)までのつなぎですね。

思いつくままに書きましたので、漏らしている部分もあると思います。自分でも調べて下さい。

英国史で、ネットや書籍を調べて下さい。
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この回答へのお礼

どうもありがとうございます!いきなりの唐突な質問にも親切に答えていただき、本当に助かりました。ありがとうございました!いろんな資料や、pippyさんの回答を参考にして明日(7/28)提出します(^-^) pirominko

お礼日時:2003/07/27 23:03

先生から何か資料をもらっていないのですか?大学の授業でこの質問のみを授業と切り離して単独で出すということはないと思います。

そこにヒントがあるはず!来週まではまだ長い。幸運を祈ります。

この回答への補足

一応プリントもらったんですよ、全部で70問あってそのうちのわからないやつなんです(>_<) でも私が見つけきれてないだけという場合もあると思うのでがんばって探します!他にもレポートかさなってて、皆さんにあまえてしまいました・・・頑張ります!!

補足日時:2003/07/25 00:27
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